The street was renamed after Saruwaka Kanzaburo, who initiated Edo kabuki in the Nakamura Theatre in European artists began noticing Japanese theatrical performances and artwork, and many artists for example, Claude Monet were inspired by Japanese wood block prints.
This Western interest prompted Japanese artists to increase their depictions of daily life including theatres, brothels, main streets and so on. One artist in particular, Utagawa Hiroshige , did a series of prints based on Saruwaka from the Saruwaka-machi period in Asakusa.
The relocation diminished the tradition's most abundant inspiration for costuming, make-up, and story line.
Ichikawa Kodanji IV was one of the most active and successful actors during the Saruwaka-machi period. He introduced shichigo-cho seven-and-five syllable meter dialogue and music such as kiyomoto.
In , the Tokugawa shogunate fell apart. Emperor Meiji was restored to power and moved from Kyoto to the new capital of Edo, or Tokyo, beginning the Meiji period.
Kabuki became more radical in the Meiji period, and modern styles emerged. New playwrights created new genres and twists on traditional stories.
Beginning in enormous cultural changes, such as the fall of the Tokugawa shogunate, the elimination of the samurai class, and the opening of Japan to the West, helped to spark kabuki's re-emergence.
As the culture struggled to adapt to the influx of foreign ideas and influence, actors strove to increase the reputation of kabuki among the upper classes and to adapt the traditional styles to modern tastes.
After World War II , the occupying forces briefly banned kabuki, which had strongly supported Japan's war since ;  however, by the ban had been rescinded.
The immediate post—World War II era was a difficult time for kabuki. Besides the war's physical devastation, many rejected the styles and thoughts of the past, kabuki among them.
He was first known as Nakamura Senjaku, and this period in Osaka kabuki became known as the "Age of Senjaku" in his honor. Today, kabuki is the most popular of the traditional styles of Japanese drama—and its star actors often appear in television or film roles.
Kabuki appears in works of Japanese popular culture such as anime. In addition to the handful of major theatres in Tokyo and Kyoto, there are many smaller theatres in Osaka and throughout the countryside.
Some local kabuki troupes today use female actors in onnagata roles. The introduction of earphone guides in ,  including an English version in ,  helped broaden the art's appeal.
As a result, in the Kabuki-za, one of Tokyo's best known kabuki theaters, began year-round performances  and, in , began marketing kabuki cinema films.
Western playwrights and novelists have experimented with kabuki themes, an example of which is Gerald Vizenor 's Hiroshima Bugi Writer Yukio Mishima pioneered and popularized the use of kabuki in modern settings and revived other traditional arts, such as Noh , adapting them to modern contexts.
There have even been kabuki troupes established in countries outside Japan. For instance, in Australia, the Za Kabuki troupe at the Australian National University has performed a kabuki drama each year since ,  the longest regular kabuki performance outside Japan.
In November a statue was erected in honor of kabuki's founder Okuni and to commemorate years of kabuki's existence.
Okuni also performed on a hanamichi stage with her entourage. The stage is used not only as a walkway or path to get to and from the main stage, but important scenes are also played on the stage.
Kabuki stages and theaters have steadily become more technologically sophisticated, and innovations including revolving stages and trap doors were introduced during the 18th century.
A driving force has been the desire to manifest one frequent theme of kabuki theater, that of the sudden, dramatic revelation or transformation.
Hanamichi and several innovations including revolving stage, seri and chunori have all contributed to kabuki play. Hanamichi creates depth and both seri and chunori provide a vertical dimension.
The trick was originally accomplished by the on-stage pushing of a round, wheeled platform. Later a circular platform was embedded in the stage with wheels beneath it facilitating movement.
This stage was first built in Japan in the early eighteenth century. Seri refers to the stage "traps" that have been commonly employed in kabuki since the middle of the 18th century.
These traps raise and lower actors or sets to the stage. Seridashi or seriage refers to trap s moving upward and serisage or serioroshi to traps descending.
This technique is often used to lift an entire scene at once. This is similar to the wire trick in the stage musical Peter Pan , in which Peter launches himself into the air.
Scenery changes are sometimes made mid-scene, while the actors remain on stage and the curtain stays open. This technique originated at the beginning of the 18th century, where scenery or actors move on or off stage on a wheeled platform.
Stagehands also assist in a variety of quick costume changes known as hayagawari quick change technique. When a character's true nature is suddenly revealed, the devices of hikinuki and bukkaeri are often used.
This involves layering one costume over another and having a stagehand pull the outer one off in front of the audience. The curtain that shields the stage before the performance and during the breaks is in the traditional colours of black, red and green, in various order, or white instead of green, vertical stripes.
The curtain consists of one piece and is pulled back to one side by a staff member by hand. An additional outer curtain called doncho was not introduced until the Meiji era following the introduction of western influence.
These are more ornate in their appearance and are woven. They depict the season in which the performance is taking place, often designed by renowned Nihonga artists.
Jidaimono , or history plays, were set within the context of major events in Japanese history. Strict censorship laws during the Edo period prohibited the representation of contemporary events and particularly prohibited criticising the shogunate or casting it in a bad light, although enforcement varied greatly over the years.
Frustrating the censors, many shows used these historical settings as metaphors for contemporary events.
Unlike jidaimono which generally focused upon the samurai class, sewamono focused primarily upon commoners, namely townspeople and peasants.
Often referred to as "domestic plays" in English, sewamono generally related to themes of family drama and romance. Some of the most famous sewamono are the love suicide plays, adapted from works by the bunraku playwright Chikamatsu; these center on romantic couples who cannot be together in life due to various circumstances and who therefore decide to be together in death instead.
Many if not most sewamono contain significant elements of this theme of societal pressures and limitations. When needed, the curtain can drop as one unit to reveal the area.
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The system is manually activated with a pull cord by one person. Over the next several years, this physician treated several other patients with the same symptoms in his outpatient genetics clinic, furthering support for a disorder never before diagnosed.
In , Dr Niikawa presented his findings and hypothesis at the first Japan Dysmorphology Conference. A fellow physician at this conference, Yoshikazu Kuroki, recognised the symptoms, and realised that he had also seen several paediatric patients with this presentation; he presented two of his own cases at the second annual conference the following year.
In , the two doctors separately submitted articles on this new diagnosis to the Journal of Pediatrics. Many of the children presenting with this diagnosis had unusual, elongated lower eyelids, and this feature was reminiscent of the theatrical make-up worn by actors in Kabuki theatre.
As reported by Dr. Kabuki was founded early in the 17th century in Japan and over the next years developed into a sophisticated form of theater.
Kabuki actors usually apply traditional makeup to strengthen their eyes, especially in a hero play, and they are very proud of their performing art.
Kabuki is therefore sometimes translated as "the art of singing and dancing". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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